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高三英语高考重难点定语从句详细讲解(一)

来源:文都中小学     时间:2020-01-14 14:06:02


也正是由于其复杂程度较高、逻辑性较强、理解难度很大,屡屡让童鞋们在考试中丢分数、失信心、丧斗志!


定语从句“三要素”

1.先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词

①指人的先行词

②指物的先行词

★ 先行词还可以是前面整个句子所叙述的事情。

He has passed the driving testwhich surprises all of us.  (which替代前面所叙述的事情)  先行词


2.关系词:引导定语的词

(1)关系词的作用

①替代前面的先行词(替代作用)

②连接主句和定语从句(连接作用)

③在定语从句中作句子成分(成分作用)

(2)关系词的分类

①标准:根据关系词在从句中做的句子成分种类

②关系代词:在从句中做 主,宾,表,定(that/which/who/whom/whose/as)

③关系副词:在从句中作状语(When/where/why)


3.定语从句:用来做定语,修饰限定先行词的句子

定语从句的分类

1.限制性定语从句:对先行词起限定修饰作用。

He is a teacher who works at our school.


2.非限制性定语从句:对先行词起补充说明作用(先行词与定语从句之间有逗号隔开)

Beijing, which is the capital of China, is a beautiful city with a long history.

比较:

He has two sons, who work in the same company. 

(He has only two sons.)

He has two sons who work in the same company.

 (Perhaps he has two more sons)

定语从句的10个难点

1.关系代词的省略(限定性定语从句)

(1)关系代词在定语从句中作宾语

She is the girl (whom / that) I loved before. (可以省略whom/that)


(2)关系代词在定语从句中作表语

He is no longer the boy (that) he used to be.  (可以省略that)


(3)关系代词作介词宾语,介词在从句句尾时可以省略

Housing price is a problem (that/which) people are interested in.

比较:

Housing price is a problem in which people are interested.(此时只能用which且不能省略) 


2.先行词是人(that/who的区别)


(1)用that的情况

①以疑问词who开头的句子中

Who is the man that is shouting there?

②关系代词在从句中作表语时

She is not the girl that she used to be.

③先行词被the very, the right, the only修饰

This is the very person that we are looking for.


(2)用who的情况

①先行词是one, ones, anybody, all, none, those 等

Those who want to go to the cinema will have to wait at the gate of the school.

②句子中有两个定语从句,一个用了that,另外一个用who

Who is the boy that won the gold medal?

③在there be 结构中

There are many young men who are against him.

④在非限定性定语从句当中

Tom, who is my best friend, has gone abroad to study.


3.先行词是物(that / which的区别)


(1)用which的情况

①在非限定性定语从句中

She lost the game, which depressed her greatly.

②关系词置于介词之后,作宾语

The pen with which you write is Jack’s.

③先行词是that或定语从句中套定语从句,一个关系词用that,另一个用which.

Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which is newly open to us.


(2)用that的情况

①先行词是不定代词如all, little, few, much,anything, everything, nothing, none, no one等

She did all that she could to help us.

②先行词被all, every, no, some, little, much, the only, he very, the right,the last等所修饰时

This is the very book that I want.

③先行词中既有人又有物时

She described in her compositions the people and he places that impressed her most.

④先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时

This is the best book that I have ever read.

This is the first film that I’ve seen since I came here.

⑤定语从句中套定语从句,其中一个关系词以用which, 另外一个用that

He built a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

⑥当主句的主语是疑问词which,另一个用that

Who is the person that is standing at the gate?


4.As引导定语从句用法


(1)As 既可以引导限制性定语从句也可以用于非限定性定句中充当主语,宾语,表语等。 

常用于以下句型当中:Such/so….. as….  像…..一样  the same …. as… 和…...同样的

A computer is so useful a machine as we can use everyday.

He is not the same man as he was.


(2)引导非限制性定语从句,此时译为“正如,像”等。可以放在句首,句中或句末。

As I remember, there were a net bar here.

Taiwan is an inseparable part of China, as is known to all.

★the same as...和the same that...引导定语从句的区别

This is the same bike that I lost yesterday. (同一事物)

This is the same bike as I lost yesterday. (同类事物)

5.关系副词的运用


(1)When 在定语从句中做时间状语,先行词为表示时间的time, day等

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. (when=on which)


(2)Where 在定语从句中做地点状语,先行词为表地点的place, spot等

Can you tell me the office where he works

(where = in which)


(3)Why 在定语从句中做原因状语,先行词只有reason.

I don’t want to listen to any reason why you were absent. 

(why = for which)


★ 关系副词 = 相应的介词 + 关系代词

★ Where引导的定语从句还可以修饰抽象空间的名词如case(情形),situation, position(位置),stage (阶段),point(地步)等

What are the situations where body language is the only form of communication?

在哪些情况下身体语言是唯一的沟通方式。(此时where = in which)

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